Superior Business Decisions Through Better Data Analysis
Health Risk Analysis Overview:
The following offers a summary of our expertise in providing health risk analysis tools and related professional services:
Description of Services:
Since 1986, Cox Associates has provided scientific risk analyses and related statistical and engineering consulting services in the following areas. Please click on the links for examples of our publications and software.
Examples of Health, Safety, and Environmental Risk Analysis projects completed by Cox Associates include the following.
For the past twenty years, Cox Associates has been an innovator in many areas of risk analysis methods and models for applications, contributing to areas such as biologically-based risk modeling and improved methods for uncertainty analysis. Examples of publications in various areas of risk analysis in the past five years include the following.
Cox LA Jr. Regression versus causation, revisited. Risk Analysis. 2010 April; 30(4):535-540.
Cox LA Jr., Popken DA. Assessing potential human health hazards
and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the
Cox T. More general conditions under which mean-variance decision making is unjustified. Risk Analysis. 2010 March; 30(3):329.
Cox LA Jr. Why reduced-form regression models of health effects versus exposures should not replace QRA: livestock production and infant mortality as an example. Risk Analysis. 2009 Dec;29(12):1664-71.
Cox LA Jr. Game theory and risk analysis. Risk Analysis. 2009 Aug;29(8):1062 -8.
Cox LA Jr. What's wrong with hazard-ranking systems? An expository note. Risk Analysis. 2009 Jul;29(7):940-8.
Cox LA Jr. A mathematical model of protease-antiprotease homeostasis failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Risk Analysis 2009 Apr;29(4):576-86.
Parnell GS, Borio LL, Cox LA, Brown GG, Pollock S, Wilson AG. Response to Ezell and von Winterfeldt. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science. March 2009, 7(1): 111-112
Cox LA Jr. Improving risk-based decision making for terrorism applications. Risk Analysis 2009 March;29(3):336-341.
Cox, LA Jr. Making Telecommunications
Networks Resilient Against Terrorist Attacks. Chapter 8 in Bier VM and
Cox LA Jr. Could removing arsenic from tobacco smoke significantly reduce smoker risks of lung cancer? Risk Analysis 2009 Jan; 29(1):3-17.
Cox LA Jr. Target Sites – Cardiovascular.
P. Wexler et al. (Eds.) Information
Resources in Toxicology, Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc.
Cox LA Jr. Target Sites – Hematopoiesis. In P. Wexler et
al. (Eds.) Information
Resources in Toxicology, Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc.
Bier VM, Cox LA Jr, Azaiez
MN. Why Both Game Theory and
Reliability Theory are Important in Defending Infrastructure Against
Intelligent Attacks. Chapter 1 in Bier VM and
Cox LA Jr., Brown GG, Pollock SM. When is uncertainty about uncertainty worth characterizing? Interfaces 2008 Nov.-Dec. 38(6):465-468.
Cox LA Jr. Some limitations of “Risk = Threat ´ Vulnerability ´ Consequence” for risk analysis of terrorist attacks. Risk Analysis 2008. Dec. 28(6):1749-1762.
Cox Jr LA, Popken DA. Overcoming confirmation bias in causal attribution: A case study of antibiotic resistance risks. Risk Analysis 2008 Oct; 28(5):1155-1171.
Cox LA Jr. R&D Planning and Risk Management. Wiley Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Analysis and Assessment, 2008.
Cox LA Jr. Managing Foodborne Risks. Wiley Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Analysis and Assessment, 2008.
Cox LA Jr, Greenberg MR, Bostrom A, Haas C, Haimes Y, Landis W, Lowrie KW, Moolgavkar S, North W. What is the scope of the journal Risk Analysis? (Invited Editorial). Risk Analysis 2008 Oct; 28(5):1135-1136.
Cox LA Jr, Ricci PF. Causal regulations vs. political will: Why human zoonotic infections increase despite precautionary bans on animal antibiotics. Environment International 2008 May;34(4):459-75
Cox LA Jr. What's wrong with risk matrices? Risk Analysis 2008 Apr;28(2):497-512.
Cox LA Jr, Huber WA. Symmetry, identifiability, and prediction uncertainties in multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models of carcinogenesis. Risk Analysis 2007 Dec;27(6):1441-53.
Cox LA Jr.. Regulatory false positives: True, false, or uncertain? [letter] Risk Analysis 2007 Oct;27(5):1083-6.
Cox LA Jr. Health Risk Analysis for Risk Management Decision-Making. Chapter 17 in Advances in Decision Analysis. W. Edwards, R. Miles, D. von Winterfeldt, Eds. Cambridge University Press. 2007. http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521682304
Bier V, Cox LA Jr. Probabilistic Risk Analysis for Engineered
Systems. Chapter 15 in Advances
in Decision Analysis. W. Edwards, R. Miles, D. von Winterfeldt, Eds..
Cox LA Jr, Popken DA. Some limitations of aggregate exposure metrics. Risk Analysis 2007 Apr;27(2):439-45.
Cox LA Jr. Does concern-driven risk management provide a viable alternative to QRA? Risk Analysis 2007 Feb;27(1):27-43.
Cox LA Jr., Popken DA, Carnevale R. Quantifying human health risks from animal antimicrobials. Interfaces 2007 Jan-Feb; 37(1): 22-38. http://interfaces.journal.informs.org/cgi/content/abstract/37/1/22
Singer RS, Cox LA Jr, Dickson JS, Hurd HS, Phillips I, Miller GY. Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Jan 29.
Cox LA Jr. Quantifying potential health impacts of cadmium in cigarettes on smoker risk of lung cancer: A portfolio-of-mechanisms approach. Risk Analysis 2006 Dec;26(6):1581-99.
Cox LA Jr, Sanders E.. Estimating preventable fractions of disease caused by a specified biological mechanism: PAHs in smoking lung cancers as an example. Risk Analysis 2006 August 6(4):881-892. (Winner, "The Outstanding Published Paper in 2006 Demonstrating an Application of Risk Assessment", awarded by the Risk Assessment Specialty Section of the Society of Toxicology, March, 2007)
Cox LA Jr. and D Babayev. Networked facilities expansion problem. International Journal of Information Technology and Decision-Making 2006 June; 5(2):379-396. http://www.worldscinet.com/ijitdm/05/0502/S0219622006002003.html
Cox LA. Detecting causal nonlinear exposure-response relations in epidemiological data. Dose Response. 2006 Aug 19;4(2):119-32.
Cox LA Jr, Wong C. State transition model for customer relationship management. Direct Marketing Analytics Journal. May, 2006, 9-15.
Cox LA. Universality of J-Shaped and U-Shaped dose-response relations as emergent properties of stochastic transition systems. Dose-Response 2006 May 1; 3(3): 353–368.
Cox LA Jr. Enrofloxacin in poultry and human health [letter]. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006 May;12(5): 872-3. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no05/05-1477_06-0305.htm
Cox LA Jr. Routine use of antibiotics in food animals increases protein production and reduces prices [letter]. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2006 Apr 1;42(7):1053.
Cox T. Potential
Human Health Impacts of Banning Antibiotics Used in Food Animals: A Case
Study of Virginiamycin. Chapter in D.
Barug, J. de Jong, A.K. Kies and M.W.A. Verstegen (Eds). Antimicrobial Growth Promoters
Where Do We Go From Here? Wageningen Academic Publishers. The
Cox LA Jr, Popken DA. Quantifying potential human health impacts of animal antibiotic use: Enrofloxacin and macrolides in chickens. Risk Analysis. 2006 Feb;26(1):135-46.
Cox LA Jr. Animal antibiotic use and human health: No expert judgment is needed to determine that reducing cases reduces risk. Risk Analysis. 2006 Feb;26(1):157-61.
Ricci PF, Cox LA Jr, MacDonald TR. Science-policy in environmental and health risk assessment: If we cannot do without, can we do better? Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Jan;25(1):29-43.
Cox LA Jr. Some limitations of a proposed linear model for antimicrobial risk management. Risk Analysis. 2005 Dec; 25(6): 1327-1332.
Cox LA, Babayev D. Optimization under uncertainty via random sampling of scenarios II. Applied and Computational Mathematics, 2005;4(1): 20-28
Cox LA Jr., VanSickle JJ, Popken DA, Sahu R. Optimal tracking and testing of US and Canadian herds for BSE: A Value-of-Information (VoI) approach. Risk Analysis, 2005; 25(4): 827-840. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2005.00648.x
Ricci PF, Cox LA Jr, MacDonald TR. First do no harm: Can regulatory science-policy in risk assessment be deleterious to health? Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Newsletter, 2005 July;13(10):26-37
Cox, LA Jr. Precaution and consequences. Letter to the Editor. PLoS Medicine. July, 2005. http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=read-response&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020232
Cox LA Jr. Parkinsonism and welding: testing for statistical vs. causal associations. Letter to the Editor. Neurology. June 29, 2005. http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletters/64/2/230
Cox LA Jr, Babayev D, Huber W. Some limitations of qualitative risk rating systems. Risk Analysis, 2005 Jun;25(3):651-62
Cox LA Jr, Copeland D, Vaughn M. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter. Letter to the Editor. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2005 June; 11(6) http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no06/04-0689_05-0266.htm
Ricci PF, MacDonald TR, Cox LA Jr. Precautionary decision making: Analysis and results. Int. J. Risk Assessment and Management, 2005 6(2-4):237-270.
Cox LA Jr, Copeland D, Vaughn M.. Ciprofloxacin resistance does not affect duration of domestically acquired campylobacteriosis. Letter to the Editor. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005 May 1; 191(1): 1565-6. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/JID/journal/contents/v191n9.html
Cox LA Jr, Ricci PF.. Causation in risk assessment and management: Models, inference, biases, and a microbial risk-benefit case study. Environ Int. 2005 Apr;31(3):377-97.
Cox, LA Jr. Predicting and optimizing customer behaviors. Chapter 12 in A. Labbi (Ed.), Handbook of Integrated Risk Management for E-Business: Measuring, Modeling, and Managing Risk. J. Ross Publishing. February, 2005. http://www.jrosspub.com/Engine/Shopping/catalog.asp?store=12&category=351&item=2813
Cox LA, VanSickle JJ, Popken DA, Sahu R. Reply to Comment on Tracking and testing of US and Canadian cattle herds for BSE: A risk management dilemma. CHOICES: The Magazine of Food, Farm, and Resource Issues. 1st Quarter, 2005. http://www.choicesmagazine.org/2005-1/comment.htm