PUBLICATION

SOFTWARE

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

ANALYSIS PROJECTS COMPLETED BY COX

ASSOCIATES

Cox Associates Consulting
COX ASSOCIATES CONSULTING | DENVER | Tel: 303.388.1778
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HEALTH RISK ANALYSIS Since 1986, Cox Associates Consulting has provided scientific risk analysis and related statisical and engineering consulting services.
Risk Analysis for World Health Organization. Created computer simulation models (PBPK and pharmacodynamic) of dose-time- response relations for low-level exposures to chemical carcinogens, for Exxon Biomedical Sciences (EBSI). For the American Petroleum Institute (API), created a computer simulation model of bone marrow and blood cell toxicity caused by cyclophosphamide, an immunosuppressive drug. Designed laboratory experiments to validate the model's predictions. Analyzed clinical and laboratory data to test model's predictive validity. Prepared a software release so that other scientists could use the model. Developed an artificial intelligence method for improving prediction of likely human chemical carcinogens, also for EBSI. Critically reviewed epidemiological studies of diesel exhaust and human lung cancer risk for the Engine Manufacturers Association. Presented conclusions in several hearings. Reviewed literature on air pollution and human lung cancer risks, for the American Petroleum Institute. Applied adaptive spatial sampling to optimize search and clean-up efforts for remediating residential properties around an abandoned hazardous waste site (for AlliedSignal) Reassessed human cancer risks from 1,3-butadiene using pharmacokinetic modeling to adjust for interspecies differences in internal doses of epoxybutene (for the Chemical Manufacturers Association) Reassessed the human leukemia risks from benzene exposure using a physiologically- based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to calculate internal dose (for the American Petroleum Association) Reviewed design of an initiation-promotion experiment for studying the potential carcinogenicity of a rubber additive, for Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. Developed a general physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tool for rapidly developing high-quality PBPK models (with ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Inc.) Reviewed artificial intelligence approaches to characterizing uncertain health risks using weight of evidence, nonmonotonic, and other uncertainty analysis (for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Assessed potential health risks associated with occupational exposure to herbicides among roadside workers, using pharmacokinetic models, for a Fortune 100 chemical manufacturer. Risk screening, exposure modeling, hazard index calculation, and recommendation of cleanup priorities for a large hazardous waste site in Canada Developed technical reports and a prototype computer modeling tool for biologically based risk assessment of cancer risks from chemical carcinogens, for the Western States Petroleum Association (WSPA) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Reviewed new biostatistical and "biologically based" approaches to cancer risk analysis, for the California Department of Health Services Reviewed regulatory history of benzene risk assessments and of biomathematical approaches to modeling leukemogenesis for the Western Oil and Gas Association and the American Petroleum Institute Prototype computer modeling of the AIDS epidemic (with Arthur D. Little, Inc.) Designed a 2-year bioassay experiment for isoprene. Analyzed and reported the resulting experimental data for a multi-client, multinational industry group coordinated by Exxon Biomedical Sciences. Accident risk analysis and consequence analysis of a petrochemical storage facility in California, for a California-based environmental consulting firm Implemented a Macintosh version of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for benzene pharmacokinetics and total metabolism in rodents and humans, for the API Explored new mathematical approaches and conceptual frameworks for dealing with scientific uncertainties in biologically-based risk assessment, for the Western States Petroleum Association (WSPA) Created an interactive data analysis and graphics package for determining the degree of worker protection provided by different respirators, filters, and face masks (with Arthur D. Little, Inc.) Microeconomic and applied probability modeling of insurance company business risks for use in tax litigation (with Arthur D. Little, Inc.) Critically reviewed a transportation risk analysis for liquefied natural gas (LNG) operations in the St. Lawrence seaway. Reviewed progress since 1985 in using decision analysis for accident risk assessments. Implemented an experimental "intelligent" data base management system for chemical health effects data bases (with Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc.) Uncertainty analysis of PBPK modeling and risk analyses, accounting for model uncertainties and population heterogeneity, for the American Industrial Health Council. Developed new techniques for assessing and predicting the cancer risks associated with mineral oils and petroleum products, for Mobil Oil.  
Balancing real versus theoretical risks to the Canadian blood supply >Here Causal modeling of antimicrobial resistance   Biologically-based risk assessment of chemical carcinogens >Here Assessment of attributable risks, probabilities of causation, and shares in causation for risks caused by the joint actions of multiple factors. (See e.g., Cox, L.A., Jr., "Statistical issues in the estimation of assigned shares for carcinogenesis liability," Risk Analysis, 7, 1, 71-80, 1987.)   Design and analysis of long-term animal bioassays >Here Computer modeling of known and suspected causal toxicological mechanisms of chemically induced health effects. (See e.g., Cox, LA, Jr., 1999. A biomathematical model of hematotoxicity. Environment International, 23, 6/7.) >Here   Advanced statistical data analysis and interpretation of epidemiological data >Here Exposure and consequence modeling, environmental fate and transport modeling, population mobility models, and engineering safety models. (See e.g., Cox, LA, Jr., 1999. Optimal adaptive sampling of contaminated soils. Forthcoming in Risk Analysis. (Accepted 10-98).)   Risk management decision making and applied decision analysis. (See e.g., Cox, LA, Jr., K. Paige, D. Popken, 1999. Software review of Analytica 1.2. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 5, 2, 305- 316.)   Artificial intelligence, machine learning, causal modeling, and data mining methods for finding valuable predictive patterns in complex data. (See e.g., Cox, LA, Jr., 1996. Using causal knowledge to learn more useful decision rules from data. Chapter 2 in D. Fisher and H.-J. Lenz (eds.), Learning from Data: AI and Statistics V. Springer- Verlag.   Operations research modeling and optimization of business and engineering operations and risky business decisions. (See e.g., Cox, LA, Jr., and J.R. Sanchez, 1999. Designing least-cost survivable wireless backhaul networks. Forthcoming in Journal of Heuristics.) Uncertainty analysis of exposure-response and dose response relations. (See e.g., Cox, LA, Jr., 1996. More accurate estimates of dose-response functions using Monte-Carlo uncertainty analysis: The Data Cube approach." Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 2, 1, 146-170.)